Firstly, it relies upon an empirical analysis of MSMEs in the Thai manufacturing sector at the aggregate level using the 2017 Thai industrial census data to calculate their technical efficiency (see Annex 3). The report also highlights the results of the 2020 UNCTAD MSME survey to make a comparative data analysis at the local level, and then presents results of an depth interview with selected firms. According to the results, sales revenue of MSMEs have been greatly impacted and led to increased demand for temporary sources of financing. Evidence demonstrates that foreign ownership and investment in local enterprises are key to upgrade swiftly firm technical efficiency (competitiveness), technology and engagement in exports. The capital stock and technology of domestic Thai MSMEs needs to be improved.